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Vikings - Wikipedia
The Jutes invaded the British Isles three centuries earlier, pouring out from Jutland during the Age of Migrations , before the Danes settled there. Another etymology supported by, among others, the recognised etymologist Anatoly Liberman  derives Viking from the same root as Old Norse vika, f. Most contemporary documentary sources consist of texts written in Christian and Islamic communities outside Scandinavia, often by authors who had been negatively affected by Viking activity. To counter the Saxon aggression and solidify their own presence, the Danes constructed the huge defence fortification of Danevirke in and around Hedeby. Their realm was bordered by powerful cultures to the south. As an adjective, the word is used to refer to ideas, phenomena, or artefacts connected with those people and their cultural life, producing expressions like Viking age, Viking culture, Viking art, Viking religion, Viking ship and so on. With the advancements of their ships during the ninth century, the Vikings were able to sail to Russia and some northern parts of Europe. Scandinavian bodyguards of the Byzantine emperors were known as the Varangian Guard. Twenty years later, they are then seen in the Gesta of Adam of Bremen. Motives The motives driving the Viking expansion are a topic of much debate in Nordic history. According to the Icelandic sagas, many Norwegian Vikings also went to eastern Europe.
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The Franks normally called them Northmen or Danes, while for the English they were generally known as Danes or heathen and the Irish knew them as pagans or gentiles. The Viking raids were, however, the first to be documented in writing by eyewitnesses, and they were much larger in scale and frequency than in previous times. Although they were generally a non-literate culture that produced no literary legacy, they had an alphabet and described themselves and their world on runestones. The Saxons were a fierce and powerful people and were often in conflict with the Vikings. This took much of the economic incentive out of raiding, though sporadic slaving activity continued into the 11th century. To counter the Saxon aggression and solidify their own presence, the Danes constructed the huge defence fortification of Danevirke in and around Hedeby. There is archaeological evidence that Vikings reached Baghdad , the centre of the Islamic Empire. As a result, there is much more material from the Viking Age about Norway than Sweden, which apart from many runic inscriptions, has almost no written sources from the early Middle Ages. After the consolidation of the church and the assimilation of Scandinavia and its colonies into the mainstream of medieval Christian culture in the 11th and 12th centuries, native written sources begin to appear, in Latin and Old Norse. A literal interpretation of these medieval prose narratives about the Vikings and the Scandinavian past is doubtful, but many specific elements remain worthy of consideration, such as the great quantity of skaldic poetry attributed to court poets of the 10th and 11th centuries, the exposed family trees, the self images, the ethical values, all included in these literary writings. Lack of organised naval opposition throughout Western Europe allowed Viking ships to travel freely, raiding or trading as opportunity permitted. They are usually in memory of the dead, though not necessarily placed at graves. Thus the end of the Viking Age for the Scandinavians also marks the start of their relatively brief Middle Ages. The Saxon defeat resulted in their forced christening and the absorption of Old Saxony into the Carolingian Empire. Fear of the Franks led the Vikings to further expand Danevirke, and the defence constructions remained in use throughout the Viking Age and even up until The Slavs and the Byzantines also called them Varangians Russian: Literature and language See also: The older, smaller stone was raised by King Gorm the Old , the last pagan king of Denmark, as a memorial honouring Queen Thyre. In Old English, and in the history of the archbishops of Hamburg-Bremen written by Adam of Bremen in about , the term generally referred to Scandinavian pirates or raiders.
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One reason is that the cultures of north-eastern Europe at the time were non-literate, and did not produce a legacy of literature. Scandinavian predation in Christian lands around the North and Irish Seas diminished markedly. Towns appeared that functioned as secular and ecclesiastical administrative centres and market sites, and monetary economies began to emerge based on English and German models. To counter the Saxon aggression and solidify their own presence, the Danes constructed the huge defence fortification of Danevirke in and around Hedeby. Foreign churchmen and native elites were energetic in furthering the interests of Christianity, which was now no longer operating only on a missionary footing, and old ideologies and lifestyles were transforming. Two Vikings even ascended to the throne of England, with Sweyn Forkbeard claiming the English throne in — and his son Cnut the Great becoming king of England — According to this theory, the word simply described persons from this area, and it is only in the last few centuries that it has taken on the broader sense of early medieval Scandinavians in general. However, there are a few major problems with this theory. The Normans were descended from Vikings who were given feudal overlordship of areas in northern France—the Duchy of Normandy —in the 10th century. Runestones are important sources in the study of Norse society and early medieval Scandinavia, not only of the Viking segment of the population. With the advancements of their ships during the ninth century, the Vikings were able to sail to Russia and some northern parts of Europe. Edmund Pierpont Morgan Library The period from the earliest recorded raids in the s until the Norman conquest of England in is commonly known as the Viking Age of Scandinavian history. England suffered from internal divisions and was relatively easy prey given the proximity of many towns to the sea or to navigable rivers. The word Viking was introduced into Modern English during the 18th-century Viking revival, at which point it acquired romanticised heroic overtones of " barbarian warrior" or noble savage. Their realm was bordered by powerful cultures to the south. The medieval Church held that Christians should not own fellow Christians as slaves, so chattel slavery diminished as a practice throughout northern Europe. Thus the end of the Viking Age for the Scandinavians also marks the start of their relatively brief Middle Ages.